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Ubatuba Viagen.. Tenório Cavalcanti ,o homem da capa preta Hobbys Do Apollo. Dalva Tenório - Quem chorou?! Inscreva-se em nosso canal oficial no BY-clips: bit. Interruption in conversational interaction, and its relation to the sex and status of the interactants. Turn-taking and interruption in political interviews: Margaret Thatcher and Jim Callaghan compared and contrasted.
Aspects contractuels dans la gestion des interactions plurilíngues. BONO, M. Some universals in language usage. Lisboa: Universidade Católica, Intercomprensione fra lingue appartenenti a diverse familgile linguistiche.
Elpidio: Wizarts, a, p. Cooperating and innovating — Redinter, working together for the implementation of intercomprehension methodologies. Acesso em 31 maio Actes du colloque IC Intercompréhension : compétences plurielles, corpus, intégration, Université Stendhal Grenoble 3 France , Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. Applied Linguistics in Intercultural Communication: a plural approach for multidimensional processes. Didaskein, in press, p. Conversation: Cognitive, communicative and social perspectives.
Elpidio: Wizarts, Consultado em 31 maio Introduction : un concept aux multiples facettes. Paris: APLV, p. Second Language Acquisition. Oxford Introductions to Language Study. Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity, FALK, J. The Conversational Duet.
Interaction among proficient learners: Are input, feedback and output needs addressed in a foreign language context? The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Interrupting the discourse on interruptions: An analysis in terms of relationally neutral, power- and rapport-oriented acts.
Roskilde: Roskilde Universitet, , p. Princípios e Métodos.
Les interactions verbales, tome II. Paris: Armand Colin, Why Do You Speak English? London: Continuum, LI, H. Cooperative and intrusive interruptions in inter- and intracultural dyadic discourse. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, vol.
Le monde économique parle-t-il vraiment anglais? Les pratiques langagières dans le domaine des entreprises. In : Berthoud A-C. Repenser le rôle des pratiques langagières dans la constitution des espaces sociaux contemporains. Bruxelles: De Boeck, , p. El plurilinguismo en la enseñanza en España Madrid: Ed.
Complutense, Nonnative-nonnative intercultural communication: An analysis of instruction sessions for foreign engineers in a Belgian company. Englisch als Medium der interkulturellen Kommunikation. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, Interpreting successful lingua franca interaction. Conversation Analysis: New Developments. Special Issue. Intercomprehension between Romance Languages and the role of English: a study of multilingual chat rooms.
Speech act theory and the analysis of conversations: sequencing and interpretation in pragmatic theory.
Essays in Speech Act Theory. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, Intrusive or cooperative? Interruption and influence in discussion group. Context cues for classification of competitive and collaborative overlaps.
Speech Prosody conference. Conference papers. Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Computing, Tensions Épistémologiques en Intercompréhension. PICA, T. Research on negotiation: What does it reveal about second-language learning conditions, processes, and outcomes.
Humour in business: A double-edged sword. A study of humour and style shifting in intercultural business meetings. Berne: Peter Lang Publishing, A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, vol. The negotiation for meaning: Repair in conversations between second language learners of English. Rowley, M. Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca. Accommodating towards the audience. Do native speakers of English know how to accommodate their communication strategies towards non-native speakers of English?
Indirectness in discourse: Ethnicity as conversational style. Gender and discourse. New York: Oxford University Press, Epistemologia de la Intercomprensión plurilíngue: de Eurom4 a Euro. VION, R. La Communication verbale. Analyse des interactions. Paris: Hachette, Interactional context in L2 dialogues.
YANG, L. Visualizing spoken discourse: prosodic form and discourse functions of interruptions. Interactive conflict resolution in English. The integration of do recurso a blogues de aprendizagem target language blogging into existing online especializados e monolingues. Using the Day of Multilingual multilingues, assim como considerações Blogging DMB , a yearly event that relacionadas com a audiência dos blogues. While DMB has no specific em blogues pré-existentes e geralmente language learning agenda, an analysis of monolingues.
Non-formal settings. Mostly, they are seen as writing as opposed to reading, but cf. So far, research on blog-assisted language learning BALL mostly focuses on formal learning contexts, such as blogging as part of a university or school language course.
In these settings, blogging usually takes place in a specialized blog — individual blog, group blog or class blog — that has been created specifically and exclusively for educational use. Furthermore, choice of language may be predetermined by the teacher. Even here, though, blogging in the target language takes place in specialized blogs only used for this purpose.
Informal blogging practices, on the other hand, have been studied extensively, but not with an eye on language learning. Language choice, especially language alternation, is addressed in these contexts, but usually from a sociolinguistic rather than a language pedagogy or CALL perspective.
But opportunities of informal language learning via blogs, or inclusion of non-scholastically oriented blogs in considerations of BALL, remain understudied. This paper argues that blogs, especially non-scholastically oriented blogs, have the potential to breach the formal vs. One Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. Theoretical overview 2. It is well-known that informal practices outside of school — e.
Some of these informal out-of-school practices require only fundamental linguistic skills to get started, while others require fairly high levels of linguistic skill in the target language for participation. It is not necessary, I would argue, to wait for multilingual niches to appear spontaneously.
Multilingual niches can potentially be created intentionally, that is, constructed with the purpose of establishing an environment in which languages can be used. Other examples, though, show individuals intentionally building or joining communities of like-minded language learners.
Definitely, a multilingual niche can be the outcome of intentional action, which might be initiated by a teacher, as long as the learner takes ownership over the activities and the multilingual niche itself. In that sense, any support in building a multilingual niche can be seen as a step towards increasing learner autonomy.
Blogs — just like any other form of social media — can be one of the tools for the construction of a multilingual niche. It is well-known that individuals with language skills in more than one language regardless of the point in life at which they acquired or learned these skills have a range of multilingual practices at their disposal. Code-alternation can happen in conversations, but it can also be used in a variety of written texts, from chat messages to letters to blog posts.
When multiple languages are used within a blog, they will often be kept symbolically or structurally distinct. Not all bloggers or blog readers agree on the norms that should govern language choice on blogs, but there is evidence that opinions held in that regard can be quite strong. In all cases, though, the preference is stated quite strongly, e. The fact that some multilingual practices draw criticism does, of course, assume the existence of these practices.
Overall, blog communication tends to be less strongly connected to conceptual orality than e. The range of usage that can be observed on blogs is very broad, though, so this certainly does not apply to all blogs equally. The variance in the degree of conceptual literacy and formality of register observed may account for some variation in the acceptability of certain code-alternation or alternation-avoidance patterns.
Another aspect that will affect code-choice on blogs is certainly that of audience conceptualizations. Many social networks allow careful addressing of sub-audiences through means such as circles, or through the distinction between timeline posts and direct messaging, which has been shown to be used to maintain distinct spaces for different languages ALM, , p.
These options do not exist in the same way for blogs. If you post something on your blog, unless you protect it with a password shared only with specific individuals, everybody can access the same post. This, in turn, may mean that you cannot easily address only sub-parts of your audience, understood here as the conceptualized audience audience on the mind of the blogger.
If bloggers assume that all of their readers are monolingual speakers of German, they will refrain from writing in English cf. ALM, , p. On the other hand, if the audience is conceptualized as potentially multilingual or as consisting of groups with different linguistic skills, other choices may become possible. Many things can be objects of psychological ownership, including tools, tasks, people, and institutions.
Many didactic Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. Pierce et al.
Learners generally have psychological ownership over the tools, including the digital tools, they use every day outside of educational settings. Breaching the gap between formal and non-formal learning is attractive, but needs to be designed in ways that do not threaten perceived ownership in the digital tools used.
Anecdotal evidence also shows that inclusion of out-of-school digital tools in educational settings can create resistance due to a perceived domain violation. Learners may prefer to keep school and non-school activities, relationships, or digital tools compartmentalized.
As one student expressed in the study by Wang et al. Why would I want people to know that I responded to some posts on an educational topic when I just want them to see pictures of my kids playing around. Jones et al. This is even more the case when the intention is not just to use a specific online service for a short-term language learning project, but to support learners in building their very own multilingual niches — multilingual niches that are viable outside the classroom setting.
In the following sections I will argue that DMB, the Day of Multilingual Blogging, is an example of a language learning and language use-focused event that creates a multilingual space in previously monolingual areas of online life, preserving ownership by encouraging participation without overregulating, and that thereby functions as a step towards the development or extension of a multilingual niche.
It was organized through the European Commission in the UK Facebook page, where users could register for the virtual event, post links to their blogposts, and discuss the event. Or do a video? After a gap in , it was moved to a separate day in November in , and may be considered independent from the European Day of Languages since then.
The last DMB took place in The option to include guest bloggers, mentioned explicitly in and , or even to embed media, as suggested in , opens up this event for even larger population groups.
As discussed above, studies on BALL tend to focus on formal rarely: non-formal learning settings, i.
DMB, on the other hand, encourages bloggers to use a language in a context where it is not usually employed, allowing learners to showcase their language skills and to reflect about their linguistic repertoire within their normal, non-language-learning-focused blogs. We will approach this data with four foci, based on the definition of multilingual niche provided above, looking at DMB as: Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol.
This list does not cover all bloggers that may have participated in DMB, but merely those who self-registered on a private blog. The euonym-blog list of participants — rather than e. Compared to the EC in UK Facebook page, this data set is more extensive, with 53 compared to 26 not all of which could be easily linked to the relevant blog registrations.
All 53 blogs included in the publicly available Google Doc list were checked for DMB- related blog posts 3. If a blog contained multiple blog posts written on November 15th and at least one blog post was included, all other blog posts were also included.
Also, blog posts providing a translation or alternative language version of any of the above, independently from the date on which they were posted, were included as well.
In a second step, corporate blogs were excluded from the sample. Several of these are represented in the dataset by multiple relevant blog posts, resulting in a total of 42 blogposts. Table 1 shows the number of DMB blogposts per blog. Further blog posts, e. Extensive reading of the blog overall supplements the in-depth analysis of the DMB blog posts identified. The content of the blog posts studied was of a non-controversial nature, i. The age of most bloggers could not be established, the general impression based e.
One blogger poses an exception here: He identified himself as aged 16 when starting to blog, and as aged 17 at the point of analysis August His behaviour on the blog e. The blog was therefore maintained in the sample. The resulting corpus includes 42 blog posts from 23 blogs, with an average length of posts of words, with a minimum of 53 and a maximum of All personal blogs were written by one blogger, i. As stated above, bloggers do not usually specify their age, but all but one discussed above appeared to be adults at the time of posting, based on e.
Blog-genres are often defined through the content of a blog e. What kind of blogs — based on content matter — are included in the sample? Nine blogs had a language-related topic such as learning languages, teaching languages, translation, and multilingual families. DMB seems to be especially attractive for individuals that are interested in language or have an increased awareness of the societal role of language.
EC or EU politics. Rather, many blogs had more implicit European undertones. For example, B, a cooking blog by a person living in Brussels seat of the European Commission, Council of the European Union, European Council and second seat of the European Parliament, sometimes considered the unofficial capital of Europe , does not merely present the recipes and cultural background information e.
That is, cooking is embedded in a context of inner- European mobility. Generally speaking, inner-European mobility — while not an explicit topic in most blogs — seemed to be disproportionally often mentioned in passing in blogpost on a diverse range of topics.
Personal connections — that influence how information about DMB flows from one blogger to the next — might have been influential here, as might be an increased interest in European events or language-related events by individuals who have lived or worked in multiple countries. While not every blogger provided enough information to create individual language profiles, based on explanations within the blogposts we can determine that the languages in this sample included native languages and local varieties, heritage languages, languages acquired through formal schooling, as well as languages currently being learned including by independent study.
Language skill in using these languages and varieties differed significantly, 5 The corporate blogs excluded from analysis had an even wider number of languages, either through guest bloggers, or by decorative language use, i.
In the rest of this section, therefore, I will discuss language choice and language alternation patterns in the blog posts. This has not the function to serve sociolinguistic curiosity, but to identify the strategies that bloggers utilized to balance their use of more than one language with the norms and expectations outlined above.
Note that merely the blogposts, including all elements such as header, but excluding images, embedded video, metadata and comments on those blogposts by readers or by the author s were analyzed. Software-generated elements within the blogposts e. This means that concerning these excluded dimensions, the overall complexity of code-choice and code-alternation is lost, and the overall extent of code-alternation may be slightly underreported.
Looking at the exact patterns of language choice and language alternation in the corpus, we find 7 basic types, falling into two major categories.
Table 3 gives an overview over the arrangements identified, which will be explained in more detail below. The totality of blogposts, though, can exhibit multilingual practices when viewed together.
There are two types of this: Type 1: DMB language only. Some blog posts Nine blog posts in five blogs were stand-alone posts entirely in the DMB language. Type 2: Translation set.
Translation sets were two or more blog posts of mostly identical content and wording, that were either created as set for DMB, or that came into existence as an older post was translated for DMB. Each blog post as seen isolated from other Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. Five translation sets in five blogs resulting in 13 blog posts could be identified in the data.
These tend to be monolingual, but, one translation set included a short explanation in the blog language, and another translation set featured some decorative code-alternation, where the links to other pages of the set were labelled with the names of the languages in the languages, e.
Seven blog posts did this, among them all blog posts written by a single guest blogger, and many by guest translators. Bloggers who usually write in a specific language may conceptualize their readers as individuals speaking at least, but possibly limited to this language. Also, including a second language in a normally monolingual blog is a deviation from routine language use that many bloggers seem to perceive as requiring an explanation.
This explanation, then, is often delivered in the customary blog language to address those readers who have come to expect this language as blog language.
Type 2: Parallel texts. Another blogger used a blog-language Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. Interlinear translation alternating each sentence in language A with its translation in language B was not used at all. Another type of translation work could be observed, but was counted as Type 1 monolingual blog post: the blogger had asked somebody to translate a text, and posted only the translation, resulting in a monolingual text.
Type 3: Full use of two languages. It was exceedingly rare to find texts that used more than one language in a pattern that felt organic, reminiscent of conversational code-alternations.
One blogger uses an intricate combination of Italian and English text parts in such a way that to follow her content completely, you need to be bilingual.
Two other bloggers use intersentential below the paragraph level and intrasentential switches to a high degree. Both bloggers use strategies that may alleviate the perceived norm violation.
Type 4: Portfolio. Two blogposts contained multiple languages in a pattern that might be described as language portfolio: Short segments in different languages, constituting a list of languages spoken by a person, or within a group. Note that all three contributions in this category are reflections about language that describe where languages were learned, when they are used, and what they mean to the person.
At the point of in-depth analysis, several more blog posts were excluded. Another blog demonstrated the limits of the blog language — DMB language distinction for multilingual blogs. This blog customarily used three languages, often in translation sets. Among the five DMB blogposts, two Ba, Bb formed a translation set, two , c were in one of the customary blog languages.
The first two were counted as translation set even though they did not differ notably from normal blog practices within this blog , the other two were not included as instances of code-alternation, as, strictly speaking, both were monolingual posts in blog languages not DMB languages.
For a summary, see Table 3. In other words: While many texts include, strictly speaking, two languages, the second language sometimes does nothing more than announce a change in language choice. Using two languages in a blog post in such a way that for complete comprehension one needs to understand both languages may meet resistance.
The same can be observed in portfolio-style blogs: Writing about the languages in your life in the languages in your life seems to be a legitimate rhetorical choice, just as to practice intersentential code-switching in a blogpost on the topic of code-switching. The level of controversy of code-choice and code-alternation patterns may depend on a number of factors, one of which may be the specific content of the blogpost.
Writing in a specific language does not only reveal something about the writers, but also about their imagined audience ONG, Many bloggers who wrote entire articles in the DMB language nonetheless included short introductions in the blog language to accommodate their readership as they conceptualized it. Yet, an event like DMB might also change audience conceptualizations, for example, by letting bloggers notice that there are audiences attracted by e.
A food blogger posted her first recipe in her native German in addition to her customary English during DMB — and continued posting recipes in both languages one year later. Their audience conceptualizations have changed.
On the internet, attention in the form of website visits or clicks, comments or links is valuable, either literally, in the case of monetized blogs more attention for the blog can lead to more advertising revenue , or figuratively, as a source of status, or simply a feeling of social embeddedness. An analysis of explicit reasons bloggers provided for participating in DMB suggests two more needs that DMB-related practices can meet.
B [Bloggers can use this day to point out the wonderful diversity of languages on the web by writing in another language than customary. Quoi, seulement deux articles en français sur mon blog? What, just two French articles on my blog?
One might believe that I have studied the romance languages in vain and do not even deign myself to show my love for them sudden strong change in register! Well, to take care of all this and to, at the same time, honour the Day of Multilingual 6 In the following quotes, all emphasis mine.
This day has in fact been dedicated to multilingualism and encourages bloggers to write in another language than their native language or to just write in their native language if that is not the case. There is a French version of this blog post here if you are interested.
Since I studied French and German many years ago, the times to use my French have been seldom and it is only since I have started visiting France regularly again that I have realised just how much I really love France.
To write in French once again is a pleasure, even if I do get some of the words wrong! Several bloggers mention explicitly that their language skills in the DMB language are not perfect: To write in French once again is a pleasure, even if I do get some of the words wrong! Ba et pas un mot dans mon accent francais de vache espagnol [and not a word on my awful French accent] B Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. For participation in DMB, strictly speaking no language skills in another language are needed: A post written in multiple languages can be either an expression of individual skills in more than one language, as well of the skills of different individuals.
The same applies to a set of posts in complementary languages. In other words: A blogpost using multiple languages or a blog presenting monolingual posts in a wide range of languages can showcase the linguistic skills of one person, or it can demonstrate the diverse linguistic skills shared between different people. The same can be observed in contexts where multiple languages were used in a single blogpost.
One blogger combined both approaches. It may seem, at first, as if only the first approach carried potential for language learning. On the other hand, editing a text in another language, perhaps using receptive skills or intercomprehension skills to select a fitting quote, is also a part of the plurilingual skill set as envisioned by the Council of Europe , p.
Participation did not require any skills in another language, and even very basic skills, e. At the same time, even very advanced language users including those that used their native language as DMB language could contribute at their level and reap the same social and emotional rewards as all other participants.
Sometimes, there is a variant of this, focusing on an exchange student or visitor interacting with Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. There, again, it is the native speaker who is in the spotlight as the object of communication and arbiter of communicative effectiveness and correctness. Even though learners are in a classroom full of learners, they remain outsiders to the language.
DMB is unlike such language clubs, or even virtual language learning communities. It is too transient, too peripheral, to make the formation of a true community of language users likely. If the event had not been discontinued after , perhaps the fact that this was a yearly recurrent event may have, over time, led to a virtual community structure, with a active, self-sustaining participation around a core of regular participants, b evidence of shared history, culture, norms and values, c solidarity and support, as evidenced by, for instance, humour, positive politeness, and reciprocity, d criticism, conflict, and the emergence of means of conflict resolution, e self-awareness of the group as an entity that is distinct from other groups, and f emergence of roles, rituals, and hierarchies HERRING, , p.
Overall, DMB is more like an event, such as a neighbourhood party or a carnival, and as such, it creates a time and a space during which standards for appropriate behaviour change. Going to work wearing a pirate costume will usually draw negative responses. At just the right times and locations, on the other hand, this is not just acceptable, but will even be socially rewarded.
DMB is a carnival for languages: If I suddenly start posting in Lingua Franca Nova on an English language blog, the audience reactions may be negative. During the Day of Multilingual Blogging right time , if my readers are informed about this fact right area of the internet , the rules change. Instead of being viewed as a breach of linguistic decorum, the Lingua Franca Nova blog post will be hailed as innovative, fun, interesting, or creative.
While DMB will therefore certainly not result in fully formed multilingual niches, it may be a step people take towards experiencing and developing such niches. It is the event structure of DMB that makes this possible.
DMB serves as a reason — and a kind of excuse — to do things linguistically that might normally violate audience conceptualizations — and lead to negative responses from the physical i.
The event structure, too, is what would make a concept such as DMB adaptable to other contexts, including language learning focused contexts. Schools already host different types of language events, often focusing on the celebration of linguistic diversity. For students at secondary school age or older, a multilingual event that integrates online practices might positively impact language learning on the long term. Encouraging students to not limit themselves to languages formally studied at school, but to use all their linguistic resources for communicative or expressive purposes, might put an additional plurilingual twist into such an event.
As blogs have long lost their status as the dominant medium of youth eventhough they have maintained popularity as instructional media or school portfolios , any DMB-like event targeting teenage learners should consider extending the range of digital formats encompassed. Currently popular social media platforms, already used by many learners, would be an obvious extension.
Ideally, such an event could be coordinated between multiple schools on the same day, to increase the event factor — possibly even on a pre-existing meaningful date, such as the previous DMB date or the European Day of Languages.
Creating such an event would then constitute something that has so far Domínios de Lingu gem Uberlândia vol. References ALM, A. Socially multilingual? An exploration of informal language learning practices on Facebook. Global perspectives on computer-assisted language learning, Glasgow July University of Ulster, AUER, P. Bilingual conversation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, Journal of language contact. Language, culture, and identity in online fanfiction. E-Learning and Digital Media, Vol.
Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, Accessed: 29 June The first European Day of Languages took place on 26 September It was one of the highlights of the European Year of Languages.
Adventures in the blogosphere: from blog readers to blog writers. Computer Assisted Language Learning, Vol. Exploring the blogosphere: use of web logs in the foreign language classroom. Foreign Language Annals, Vol. Babel no more: The search for the world's most extraordinary language learners. New York: Free Press, European Commission, Brussels, 23 September Ten Commandments for bilingual blogs. Eibar, 29 April A meta-analysis of effectiveness studies on computer technology-supported language learning.
Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online communities. Designing for Virtual Communities in the Service of Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , p. Get out of MySpace! Computer and Education, Vol. Schriftlichkeit und kommunikative Distanz. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, Berlin, Vol. Language contacts and code-switching in electronic writing: The case of the blog.
Code-switching, Languages in Contact and Electronic Writing. Blogging in two languages: code-switching in bilingual blogs. In: Selected proceedings of the third workshop on Spanish sociolinguistics. Thesis PhD. ONG, W. PMLA, Vol. The state of psychological ownership: integrating and extending a century of research. Review of General Psychology, Vol. The corporate blog as an emerging genre of computer-mediated communication. Features, constraints, discourse situation.
Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Göttingen The ethics of using the internet to collect qualitative research data. Research Ethics, Vol. The Online Informal Learning of English. WANG, Q. Using the Facebook group as a leaning management system: an exploratory study. British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. Moving mountains: will qualifications systems promote lifelong learning? European Journal of Education, Vol. Compreende-se code-switching use of more than one language during a single como o uso de mais de um idioma durante um communication event.
Due e informais, em ambiente familiar. Bolsista Capes. Marcelo J. Krug, Cristiane Horst, Fernanda F. Wepik p. Polish- Contato linguístico polono-português. Portuguese Language contact. A esse uso precisa-se acrescentar fatores linguísticos e extralinguísticos, pois acredita-se que tanto o domínio da variedade, quanto em quais dimensões e circunstâncias ela é utilizada vai depender geralmente de fatores como grau de bilinguismo de cada grupo ou até mesmo, de cada indivíduo, do prestígio das variedades em contato e do conhecimento que os indivíduos têm dos temas a serem abordados.
Macswan ; Myers-Scotton ; Hamers e Blanc , dentre outros, que além de conceitualizar o termo code-switching, propõem classificações, diferenciam o code-switching de code-mixing e, ao mesmo tempo, convergem em alguns e divergem em outros aspectos.
Atualmente, muitos autores, entre eles Myers-Scotton , defendem que o code-switching envolve falantes proficientes, que têm capacidade de produzir discursos bem formados nas línguas ou dialetos envolvidos, ou seja, conseguem projetar sistematicamente, de forma gramatical, de acordo com as normas de suas línguas.
Dessa forma, cabe aqui retomar alguns conceitos importantes sobre o bilinguismo e sobre o que é um indivíduo bilíngue. Romaine destaca que um dos primeiros autores a estudar o bilinguismo foi Bloomfield 4, para o qual o indivíduo bilíngue precisa ter um controle de línguas semelhante à do nativo.
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